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FORVM'S Roman Coin Legend Search

 

Search for:

 

If you cannot read the entire legend, the following “wildcard” characters may help:

Use * for groups of letters you cannot read.
Use an underscore ( _ ) for single letters you cannot read.
Use [ ] for any single letter within a specified range (for example, [A-F]) or set (for example, [BDPF]). Use this wildcard for letters that look alike when worn or poorly struck.
Use [ ^] for any single character not within the specified range (for example, [^A-F]) or set (for example, [^BDFP]). Use this wildcard when you are certain an obscure letter is not specific letters.

Examples:
IMPC* searches for all legends that begin with IMPC.
*RPP searches for all legends that end in RPP.
*DOMITIAN* searches for all legends that contain DOMITIAN.
IMPC*DOMI* searches for all legends that begin with IMPC, followed by any number of letters which contain DOMI.
_AGRIPPA* searches for all legends that have one letter then AGRIPPA followed by any number of letters.
DNIOHANNESP[PF]AVG searches for DNIOHANNESPFAVG and DNIOHANNESPPAVG.

Identifying Common Late Roman Bronze Coins
©2003 Scott Uhrick  for  Ancient Coins for Education, Inc
With Links Added to FORVM's Catalog and Helvetica's RIC Tables!

One of the most satisfying parts of working with ACE is going to a school where the students are well into cleaning their coins and helping the kids identify them.  The skills I’ve picked up from cleaning a few thousand of these little bronze nuggets find their only useful outlet there, and my ego benefits greatly from having student after student come up with a coin they considered an unidentifiable slug and return to their friends with an attribution as to type or emperor.  In the end very few are truly unidentifiable.  The constantly repeated question is “How do you do it?”  My less-than-helpful answer is always “pattern-matching”.  

The fact is that the great majority of these coins are from a handful of Emperors, and these Emperors showed little variety in the designs they placed on their bronze coinage.  The gold issues demonstrate a great deal more artistic effort (and no, you will never find one of those in these lots).  Eighty percent of the coins you will come across fall into an identifiable set of Emperors and reverses and this guide is pointed toward helping identify those coins. 

 Part 1 – The Era of Constantine the Great, his Sons and Rivals (320 – 337 A.D.) 

The main players – Constantine, Crispus, Constantine Jr., Constantius, Constans, Licinius and Licinius Jr.

 OK – so only George Foreman has shown less originality in naming his sons.*  It probably won’t surprise you that Constantine named his daughter “Constantia” (if you find one of her coins, call me at ‘203 790-1669’ - they are rarer than political scruples).  Please note that the coins in this era identify Constantine as Augustus (“AVG”) and his sons as Caesars (“NOB C” or “NC”).  This alone will help you ID coins of Constantine (the Great) vs. coins of his sons (the not-nearly-so-great).   

 *(George named all four of his sons “George”)

 Obverses

a

b

c

d

e

Constantine

Crispus

Constantine Jr.

Constantius II

Constans

CONSTANTINVS P F AVG

CRISPVS NOB C

CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C

FL IVL CONSTANTIVS  NOB C

FL IVL CONSTANS NOB C

 

f

g

h

i

j

Licinius

Licinius Jr.

Constantinople Commemorative

Rome Commemorative

Delmatius

IMP LICINIVS AVG

LICINIVS IVN NOB C

CONSTANTINOPOLIS

VRBS ROMA

DELMATIVS
(or DALMATIVS)
NOB CAES


k
Hanniballianus
FL HANNIBALLIANO
REGI, Euphrates reclining reverse

For the purpose of ID’ing the person on the coin don’t pay too much attention to the titles (“FL”, “IVL”, etc…).  Locate the name and look for the all-important “N” which makes the difference between “CONSTANTINVS” and “CONSTANTIVS”.  Coins of Crispus and Constans are easier to pick out by counting the letters.  Remember that the title of Augustus (“AVG”) was only granted to the children of Constantine after his death.  A coin with the name of the child with the title “AVG” was minted after 337 (the year Constantine shuffled off this mortal coil.  Went to meet his maker.  Joined the choir invisible.  Snuffed it, etc…).

 Reverses 

1

2

3

4

5

GLORIA EXERCITVS

CAESARVM NOSTRORVM
VOT X

PROVIDENTIAE CAESS

IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS

VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP VOT P R

The glory of the army

Because of the vows of our Caesars (pledged) for ten years (of service)

(Dedicated to) the foresight of our Caesars

(Dedicated to) Jove the preserver of the Caesars

The happy victories of the long-lived princes because of vows of the Roman people

Two soldiers standing beside one or two standards

The years of the vows commemorated within the dedication

A campgate with two turrets

 

Jupiter standing left holding Victory

Two Victories placing shield on altar – shield inscribed 
“VOT P R”

 

6

7

8

9

10

BEATA TRANQVILLITAS VOTIS XX

SOLI INVICTO COMITI

VIRTVS EXERCIT VOT XX

(ANEPIGRAPHIC) (Constantinople Commemorative)

(ANEPIGRAPHIC) (Rome Commemorative)

Blessed peace because of vows pledged for twenty years

(Dedicated to) our friend the invincible sun

The courage of the army because of vows pledged for twenty years

(ANEPIGRAPHIC)

 

(ANEPIGRAPHIC)

Altar inscribed “VOTIS XX”

Sol standing l. holding globe

Two captives seated at base of standard inscribed "VOT XX"

Victory walking l., foot on prow, holding scepter and leaning on shield

She-wolf standing left,
head facing, Romulus
and Remus below

 

Part 2 – The Era of The Heirs of Constantine (337 – 363)

After the death of Constantine his three remaining sons inherited the Empire.  The eldest (Constantine) died trying to increase his share at the expense of his youngest brother.  That brother (Constans) died in a revolt brought on by his religious and sexual eccentricities.  The remaining son Constantius reigned for a respectable 24 years.  His need for a co-ruler led him to elevate one of his few remaining relatives (Constantius Gallus)to the rank of Caesar.  When Gallus didn’t work out Constantius had him executed and replaced with his only remaining cousin, Julian.  Julian’s promotion worked out perhaps a little too well – Constantius died during a campaign to put down Julian’s rebellion.  Julian lasted only two years before dying while campaigning against the Persians, and this tedious series of Constantines came to an end. 

k

l

m

n

Posthumous commemorative for Constantine the Great

Constantine Jr.

Constantius II

Constans

DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG

CONSTANTINVS P F AVG

D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG

CONSTANS P F AVG

 

o

p

q

Constantius Gallus

Julian (as Caesar)

Julian (as Augustus)

D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C

D N FL CL IVLIANVS NOB C

D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG

It can be easy to confuse coins of Constantius II with those of Constantius Gallus.  Coins of Constantius Gallus and Julian (while Caesar) never have a diadem (the jewel headband later Roman Emperors wore as a sign of royalty).  With that as a guide one can often ID a coin with only a few letters showing. 

I haven’t discussed coin size so far.  All of the coins pictured above are ae3’s (“officially”, bronze coins from 17mm to 21mm, but these will sometimes be found a bit smaller).  The coins you will usually find in uncleaned lots from the Constantine era will usually be of this size, although you will occasionally find some of the FEL TEMP series of the larger variety, up to 23mm.

Reverses 

11

12

13

14

Victoriae Roman Coin

GLORIA EXERCITVS

FEL TEMP REPARATIO

VOT XX MVLT XXX

VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN

The glory of the army

The return of happy times

Because of vows, twenty years (already served) and with more vows, thirty.

The victories of our lords and emperors

Two soldiers standing beside one standards

Emperor standing rt., holding labarum, two captives at feet

 

Two Victories facing holding wreaths

These coins were minted for a few years at the end of Constantine’s reign and for a few years after he died. 

 

 

 

 

15

16

17

18

Happy Days Roman Bronze

Happy Days Roman Bronze

Happy Days Roman Bronze

Happy days roman coin

FEL TEMP
REPARATIO

FEL TEMP REPARATIO

FEL TEMP
REPARATIO

FEL TEMP REPARATIO

The restoration of happy times

The restoration of happy times

The restoration of happy times

The restoration of happy times

Emperor standing l. in galley rowed by Victory, holding Victory and labarum

Phoenix w. wreath in beak standing r. atop pyre

Soldier walking r.  leading child from hut beneath tree

Soldier spearing fallen horseman

 

 

 

The most common coin found in uncleaned lots

Part 3 – The Post-Constantine Empire 

After Julian the coins become more unimaginative and, in general, smaller.  Valentinian begat Valens, Gratian and Valentinian II. Theodosius begat Arcadius and Honorius.  And they all begat some pretty dull little coins.  

r

s

t

u

Valentinian

Valens

Valentinian II

Gratian

D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG

D N VALENS P F AVG

D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG

D N GRATIANVS P F AVG

Reverses #19, 20

Reverses #23, 25, 22

Reverses #19,20, 21, 25

 

v

w

x

y

Theodosius I

Arcadius

Honorius

Theodosius II

D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG

D N ARCADIVS P F AVG

D N HONORIVS P F AVG

D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG

Reverses #21, 22, 23, 25

Reverses 21, 22, 23, 24, 26

Reverses #22, 24,

The difficult part of identifying coins from this era is telling Valentinian from Valens from Valentinian II, and telling Valentinian I from Valentinian II.  In the chart above I list which reverses are usually found on the coins of which Emperor.  It isn’t at all conclusive, but I hope it will help.

Reverses 

19

20

21

22

Security of the Republic Roman Coin

Glory of the Romans Bronze Coins

Roman Bronze Votive Coinage

Concordia Roman Bronze Coins

SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE

GLORIA ROMANORVM

VOT V MVLT X

CONCORDIA AVGGG

The Security of the Republic

The Glory of the Romans

Because of vows, five years (already served), and with more vows, ten.

Concord Between the Three Augusti

Victory walking l.

Emperor walking r. holding labarum and dragging captive

These coins will commemorate various years – this is only an example

Constantinopolis seated facing, holding globe and scepter

Ae3

Ae3

Ae4

Ae3

 

23

24

25

26

The Health of the Reipublic Roman Bronze Coins

Glory of the Romans Coins

SALVS REIPVBLICAE

GLORIA ROMANORVM

REPARATIO REIPVB

VIRTVS EXERCITI

The Health of the Republic

The Glory of the Romans

The restoration of the Republic

The Courage of the Army

Victory walking l., dragging captive and carrying trophy

Two (or three) emperors stg. facing, each holding spear and shield

Emperor standing l, holding Victory on a globe with right hand and raising kneeling woman with his left.

Victory standing l. crowning the Emperor standing facing, head r.

Ae4

Ae4

Ae2

Ae3

Note:
Ae2 = 21mm – 25mm
Ae3 = 17mm – 21mm
Ae4 = less than 17mm 

Remember that these coins were hand made and so the sizes can vary somewhat.

Part 4 – Coins Commonly Found From Before the Constantine Era

Although coins from before the Constantine era sometimes appear in Uncleaned lots, they are so varied that producing a quick guide would be impossible.  Two types of coins from this era crop up; antoninianii and follii, the antoninianii being by far the more common.

While the antoninianus (double denarius) had been around since 214 AD the coins we are likely to find in these lots are the silver-coated bronze antoninianii of the late Empire.  Mostly these are from Aurelian, Probus, Gallienus and Claudius II. 

z

aa

bb

cc

Aurelian

Probus

Gallienus

Claudius II

IMP AVRELIANVS AVG

IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG

GALLIENVS AVG

IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG

Reverses

Below are just a few of the more common reverses.

27

28

29

30

IOVI CONSERV

ORIENS AVG

CONCORDIA MILITVM

VICTORIA AVG

(Dedicated to) Jove the preserver

The rising Augustus

The unity (or concord) of the army

The victory of our Augustus

Jupiter standing l., presenting globe to Emperor standing right

Sol standing l., two captives at his feet

Jupiter standing l. offering Victory on a globe to Diocletian

Victory standing left holding laurel wreath and branch

Part 5 – Coins From the Byzantine Empire

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Empire continued the Roman traditions for another 1,000 years.  Two types of coins from the Byzantines are often found in uncleaned lots; folles from the early Byzantine Empire and scyphate (cup-shaped) coins from the later Byzantine Empire.  Again, these are just a few examples to give you an idea of where to look further. 

dd

ee

ff

gg

Justinian follis

Justin II ˝ follis

Manuel I scyphate

Latin Rulers scyphate
(smaller imitative of Manual I scyphate)

D N IVSTINIAN P AV

Justin and Sophia, seated facing

Christ seated on throne, wearing nimbus

Christ seated on throne, wearing nimbus

 

31

32

33

34

Justinian follis

Justin II ˝ follis

Manuel I scyphate

Latin Rulers scyphate

Large M, cross above, stars left and right, r (3rd officina) below, CON in exergue

Large “K”, “ANNO” to left, cross above, Regnal Year to right ("E"=5 or 569/70),TES (Thessalonica mint) below.

The Virgin (on r.) and Manuel (on l.) standing facing, Virgin crowning Emperor who holds labarum

The Virgin (on r.) and Manuel (on l.) standing facing, Virgin crowning Emperor who holds labarum

Part 6 – Miscellaneous Coins That Turn Up In These Lots

Two other types of cons need a little coverage, Roman Provincials and Barbaric Imitations. 

Roman Provincials

Roman Provincial coins were minted by cities across the Empire which had been granted authority to mint their own bronze coins.  Their legends are sometimes in Latin but more often in Greek.  They range in size and can be as large as 30mm.  

hh 35   36 37

 

   Gordian III ae20 of Nicaea, Bithynia

NIKAI / EWN

 

P M S COL VIM

PROVINCIA DACIA

IMP C M ANT GORDIANVS AVG

two legionary eagles between two standards

 

Moesia standing left, between a bull and lion

Dacia standing between lion and eagle

 Barbaric Imitations

Roman coins were so widely accepted that border areas assumed that only coins that looked Roman could be valid.  So when the barbaric areas needed additional coins they made their own.  If you find a coin which appears Roman but has an impossible legend (all “I”s for instance), it may be a barbaric imitation.  The style is also usually very crude.  Two examples:

         ii

jj

Compare to #5

Compare to #23
(this coin is only 11 mm!)

Hope this helps.  Please realize that a small guide like this can only help with the most common finds.  In my lots I’ve found ancient Greek coins, Crusader coins, Arabic coins, a 1813 Austrian Kreuzer and ancient cast forgeries.  Enjoy them!  It is part of the fun!

Keep scrubbing,

Scott Uhrick

scott@joviel.com
www.joviel.com

(all coins from the author’s collection)
Many Thanks to Cathy Scaife for the Latin translations

 

 

 

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Helvetica's RIC Tables

AllectusAllectus's radiate coins.

All radiate types including his AE Quinarii.
Subdivided into groups according to reverse.

Includes bust types and notes.
XLS format, 162 Kb.

 
AurelianAurelian's Antoniniani.
  • All types including CONCORDIA.. FIDES.. ORIENS..
  • Subdivided into groups according to reverse.
  • Includes bust types, type descriptions and notes
  • XLS format, 422 Kb.
Some BEATA typesBEATA TRANQVILLITAS and variations.
Includes :
  • BEAT TRA-NQLITAS
  • BEATA TRANQVILLITAS
  • and all the variations
  • Includes bust types, notes and a bust type finder because of the many types and variations!

XLS format, 240.6 kb

Byzants-Large MByzantine coin type: Large M
The full list !
This is a large file of just over 5,000 lines (!) and contains ONLY the "Large M" Byzantine (and some Byzantine-Arabic) types.
  • Types: Large M and large m with and without figures, symbols, regnal dates, officina letters, crosses, chi-rhos and other things in the fields
  • Includes bust type list, links and notes
  • XLS format, 1.417 Mb
Byzants-Large other lettersByzantine coin type: All other large letters
The full list !
This file is split into the various large letters apart from "Large M" which is in a separate file
  • Types: Large K, I, epsilon, chi-rho, X, XX, XXX, plus various other, less used large letters. These types are split, according to type, into 7 pages.
  • Includes bust type list, links and notes
XLS format, 1.27 Mb

 

Byzants - all othersByzantine coins, others
  • Types: AE and billon coins including Trachys (saucer shaped coins) (no silver!), coins of general types, types with crosses, legends, religious figures etc.
  • Also includes many Byzantine-like coins of Crusaders and Crusader Kingdoms.
  • Note: Monogram coins are now on a list of their own.
XLS format, 536 kb
A nice campgate (not mine unfortunately)Campgates
Various legends, usually PROVIDENTIAE AVGG or PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
XLS file 535 kb includes Bust Types and Notes.
CarausiusThe Antoniniani of Carausius
All his Antoniniani - and there are a lot of them !
XLS format, 773 Kb
CarusThe Antoniniani of Carus
All his Antoniniani, with many thanks to Ed of Othila Coins, THE Carus website for additional information, corrections and lists
XLS format, 170 Kb
Chi-Rho, Large
The large chi-rho types of Magnentius, Decentius and Constantius II
XLS format, 38 Kb

 

City commemorativesCity Commemoratives. Includes:
  • Victory on prow
  • Soldiers + Standards / Urbs Roma and Constantinopoli(s) obverses (as in "Soldiers and Standards" below)
  • Bridge over river
  • Star in wreath
  • VOT coins / Urbs Roma and Constantinopoli(s) obverses (as in VOTs below)
  • lots of medallions (all rare)
XLS format, 117 kB
Please also see the samples of "Victory on prow" types on my other website.
Claudius IICLAUDIUS II
The Antoniniani of Claudius II Gothicus
  • Aequitas, Annona, Clementia, Felicitas, Fides, Iovi, Laetitia, Libertas, Liberalitas, Mars, Pax, Providentia, Roma, Salus, Securitas, Spes, Tranquillitas, Uberitas, Victory etc.
  • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, 2 persons, animals and objects
XLS format, 630 kb
Concordia avgggCONCORDIA AVGGG and CONCORDIA AVGG
  • Constantinopolis and Roma seated facing, head left or right
  • All types from RIC IX and RIC X
  • Includes bust types and notes
XLS format, 104 Kb.
CONCORDIA MILITVMCONCORDIA MILITVM and similar
All CONCORDIA MILITVM (and similar legends) types
  • CONCORD MILIT, CONCORD MILITVM, CONCORDIA MILITVM, CONC MIL, CONCORD MI, etc.
  • Types: Emperor receiving something from someone, Concordia alone, Emperor alone (Constantius II and Vetranio), Emperor clasping hands with someone, Joined hands, Two Concordiae, etc.
  • includes several unlisted types. Pages for bust types and notes
XLS format, 490 kB. Uploaded: 4th October 2006
CONSERV VRB SVAE and similar
All CONSERV VRB SVAE and CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE types
  • Types: (Maximian, Constantine, Maxentius)
    Roma seated left in hexastyle temple holding globe and sceptre or Victory on globe and sceptre, sometimes with shield....
    .... on her own
    .... giving globe to Maxentius
    .... opposite Victory
    .... between two Victories
  • Numerous columns for details such as acroteria and pediment decoration, includes bust types and notes
XLS format, 114 kB. Uploaded: 12th July 2009

 

Cross within wreath or legendCross within wreath or legend
  • Cross within wreath of Theodosius, Valentinian III, Arcadius, Honorius
  • Cross within legend of Theodosius, Valentinian III, Arcadius, Honorius, Galla Placidia
  • Includes bust types and notes
XLS format, 39 Kb.

 

Dafne and Captive
  • The CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE "Dafne" types of Constantine I, struck only in Constantinople.
XLS format, only 28 Kb.
Fel Temp - the one on the right is my own gorgeous Rome 174FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing horseman type
XLS file, 1.53 Mb, includes Notes and bust types.
Note: I removed the "type finder" page because the countless differences to things like position of soldiers foot, knee, elbow, position of horseman's arm and hand, position of shield on ground etc etc. made by the various celators over the years would result in literally millions of lines.
Maybe my collection of Fel Temps with some pictures of my coins (on my other website) will be of interest to you.
Fel Temp othersFEL TEMP REPARATIO
All other types of FEL TEMP types except fallen horsemen (see above):
  • Fel Temp galley,
  • phoenix on globe or mound
  • Soldier leading captive from hut
  • emperor kicking captive
  • emperor with 2 captives
  • emperor on horseback etc
XLS format, 275 kB, includes bust types and notes.
FlorianFlorian's Antoniniani.
  • Subdivided into groups according to reverse.
  • Includes bust types and notes
  • XLS format, 142 Kb.
GallienusGALLIENUS
The Antoniniani of Gallienus
  • Aequitas, Annona, Clementia, Felicitas, Fides, Iovi, Laetitia, Libertas, Liberalitas, Mars, Pax, Providentia, Roma, Salus, Securitas, Spes, Tranquillitas, Uberitas, Victory etc.
  • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, 2 persons, animals, objects and objects with captives
  • includes hundreds of hoard coins not in RIC, bust types and notes
XLS format, 907 kb
Most of the zooGallienus' (and Salonina) "Zoo" coins.
Includes :
  • The big cats: Panthers and lions
  • Forest and steppe animals: Stags, does, gazelles, elks, antelopes and boars
  • Pegasus and horses (including some Greek coins)
  • Mythical creatures: Hippocamps, gryphons and centaurs
  • Farm animals: Goats, capricorns and bulls
  • Birds: Ibises and/or storks
  • Child riding goat
  • Wolves and goats suckling infants (note: Not VRBS ROMA types, which are below)
XLS format, 187 kByte
some Genio typesGENIO......
includes (all GENIO types):
  • GENIO POP ROM
  • GENIO CAESARIS
  • GENIO AVG / AVGVSTI / AVGG ET CAESARVM NN
  • GENIO IMPERATORIS
  • GENIO EXERCITVS
  • GENIO FIL AVGG
  • BONO GENIO PII IMPERATORIS
  • Bust types & notes
Important: Due to the huge number of variations this is an unusually large file of nearly 1.5 megabyte.Because of the large number of variations, check every field of "possibles" in order to get an exact match. XLS format, 1.5 Mb.
Gloria RomanorumGLORIA ROMANORVM.
All GLORIA ROMANORVM types except those covered in other lists below. XLS file, inc. bust types, notes and "quick type finder". Types include
  • Emperor dragging captive
  • emperor with globe
  • emperor on horseback
  • Empress (Eudoxia) enthroned
  • two emperors
  • three emperors, etc.
XLS format, 335 kB
Hoc Signo Victor ErisHOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS
Emperor holding labarum, crowned by Victory.
A little similar to the VIRTVS EXERCITI types made later for Honorius and Arcadius (in the appropriate list below) XLS format, 28 kB. Uploaded: 7th March 2007
Iovi ConservatoriIOVI CONSERVATORI.
All IOVI CONS, CONSER, CONSERVAT and CONSERVATORI types:
  • Jupiter on his own or with a second personage,
  • with and without eagle, globes, captives etc at foot,
  • standing, sitting,
  • with various objects in his hands.
  • Folles, antoniniani, sestertii, dupondii and ases.
  • bust types, notes and type finder.
XLS format, 627 kB
Some of the IOVIs in this listIOVI.. the others
Other IOVIs (ie. not IOVI CONS.. which are on a list of their own)
  • IOVI ..TVTATORI, ..FVLGERATORI, ..AVG and AVGG
  • IOVI ...PROPVGNAT .. STATORI .. VICTORI
  • IOVI ..VLTORI ..IO CANTAB ..PATRI and IOV ET HERCV CONSER AVGG types
  • All types from RIC V onwards
  • Includes bust types and notes
XLS format, 160 kb.
Julian bullsSECVRITAS REIPVB Julian II bull coins:
  • Bull standing right, two stars above
  • Bull standing right, two stars above, eagle to right
  • All types from RIC VIII
  • Includes bust types and notes
XLS format, only 45 kb.
Helena and Fausta typesCoins of the ladies.
  • Coins of Helena, Fausta, Theodora, Aelia Flaccilla, Placidia and Galeria Valeria
  • Includes bust types, type descriptions, hairstyle info and notes. (Note: Salonina and Severina have their own lists).
XLS format, 190 Kb.
Viminacium Moesia and Dacia typesVIMINACIUM - MOESIA with bull and lion, and variations and DACIA with eagle and lion.
Primarily the list covers the coins with PMS COL VIM and variations and PROVINCIA DACIA on the reverse e.g.
  • Moesia standing between bull and lion, arms outstreched
  • Ditto, but with Moesia holding something
  • Victory or Emperor, standing left between bull and lion
  • A few rarer medallion types of Viminacium/Moesia
  • Dacia standing holding various attributes, between eagle and lion
  • Includes bust types and notes
XLS format, 220 Kb.
MonogramsMonograms.
These coins are all late Roman or Byzantine.
Monogrammed coins of Anastasius I, Justin I and II, Justinian I, Tiberius II, Maurice Tiberius, Phocas, Heraclius, Constans II, Constantine IV and VII, Romanus I and II, Nicephorus II, John I and V, Basil II, Manuel I and II, Andronicus II, Marcian, Theodosius II, Leo I, Basiliscus, Zenosis, Zeno, Libius Severus, Anthemius, Julius Nepos and some Vandals and Ostrogoths.
Please also refer to the following page with sketches of the various monograms
XLS format, 55 kB
posthumousPOSTHUMOUS COINS.
Coins struck after the death of e.g. : Carus, Constantine I, Constantius I, Claudius Gothicus, Galerius Maximian, Helena, Gallienus, Mariniana, Maxentius, Maximianus Herculius, Maximinus, Nigrinian, Numerian, Quintillus, Quintus Julius Gallienus, Romulus, Tetricus, Theodora, Valerian I and II, Victorinus.
Constantine in quadriga * Constantine VN-MR types * Altars * Eagles * Peacocks * Lions walking left or right * Shrines
XLS format, 230 kB sorted according to reverse type, inc. bust types, sub-type descriptions and quick finder. Types include
PostumusPOSTUMUS
The Antoniniani of Postumus
Split into pages depending on reverse type.
including coins not in RIC, e.g. Cunetio hoard, Alföldi etc.
XLS format, 135 KB

 

ProbusPROBUS
The Antoniniani of Probus
Please note, my friends, there are thousands and thousands of variations, this is a large file.. I am very happy that it's finished, I started having nightmares about quadrigas chasing me :-P
Split into pages of 1 main person, 2 main persons, 1 person with captive(s), on horse, driving a quadriga, biga or chariot, objects (trophies, temples) and various.
Dozens of different bust types
including most coins not in RIC but documented by Alföldi.
XLS format, 1.93 MB
QuintillusQUINTILLUS
(At the request of Steve Gaunt :-)
The Antoniniani and silver coins of Quintillus (brother of Claudius II, hence the similarity) XLS format, 82 kB
Reparatio Reip and Reparatio Fel TempREPARATIO REIPVB and REPARATIO FEL TEMP.
(Note: FEL TEMP REPARATIO are on separate lists above)
REPARATIO REIPVB: Emperor raising woman and REPARATIO FEL TEMP: Emperor holding spear, standard or labarum and resting other hand on shield. (Struck only for Procopius).
XLS format, 54 kB sorted into sheets according to reverse type, inc. bust types.
RESTITVTRESTITV-TOR REIP and RESTITVTOR-REIPVBLICAE
Emperor standing holding labarum or standard and Victory on globe.
XLS format, 54 Kbytes. Uploaded: 3rd September 2007
SACRA MONETA
4th century folles of Moneta standing left holding scales and cornucopiae and with legends e.g.
SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, SACRA MONET VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN, SACRA MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN, M SACRA AVGG ET CAESS NN, MONETA S AVGG ET CAESS NN, MONETA SACRA A-VGG ET CAESS NN etc.
  • includes some hoard coins not in RIC, bust types and notes

    XLS format, 146 kb

     

  • SaloninaSALONINA
    The Antoniniani of Gallienus's wife, Salonina
    • Juno, Venus, Fecunditas, Vesta etc.
    • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, 2 persons, animals, objects and objects with captives.
    • includes hoard coins not in RIC, bust types and notes

    XLS format, 100 kb

     

    Sarmatia and Alamannia DevictaSARMATIA DEVICTA and ALAMANNIA DEVICTA
    Victory advancing right, holding trophy and branch, spurning seated captive
    XLS format, only 33 kb because these coins were made at a limited number of mints for a limited time and with few variations. Uploaded: 27th October 2007
    SeverinaSEVERINA
    The Antoniniani of Aurelian's wife, Severina
    • There aren't all that many different types coins of Severina, so this is a very small list.
    • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, and 2 or more persons.
    XLS format, 52 kb
    My R5!Soldiers and Standards
    GLORIA EXERCITVS : Soldiers with 2 or 1 standards
    XLS file 390 kb includes Bust Types and Notes.
    Some SOLI typesSOLI INVICTO COMITI and Sol variations.
    Coins in the list:
    • Sol standing left with globe or whip
    • Sol in quadriga (Antoniniani)
    • Sol holding head of Serapis
    • Sol with one or two captives
    • Radiate bust of Sol
    • Includes bust types, type finder and notes

    XLS format, 770 Kb
    Spes ReipvbliceSPES REIPVBLICE.
    SPES REI-PVBLICE and SPES REI-PVLICAE.
    Types: (Reipvblice:) Emperor standing left holding globe and spear. (Reipvblicae:) Emperor holding labarum and globe, right foot on captive.
    XLS format, 68 kB inc. bust types and notes.
    TacitusTACITUS
    The Antoniniani of Tacitus
    • Aequitas, Annona, Clementia, Felicitas, Fides, Iovi, Laetitia,
    • Libertas, Mars, Pax, Providentia, Roma, Salus, Securitas,
    • Spes, Tranquillitas, Uberitas, Victory
    • Separate page for Pax types
    • includes numerous unlisted types
    • includes bust types and notes
    XLS format, 240 kb
    TetricusTETRICUS I and II
    The Antoniniani of Tetricus I and II
    • Aequitas, Clementia, Felicitas, Fides, Iovi, Laetitia, Libertas, Mars, Pax, Pietas, Providentia, Salus, Securitas, Spes, Uberitas, Victory etc.
    • Separate pages for reverses with 1 person, 2 persons and non-persons
    • includes numerous types not in RIC. Pages for bust types and notes
    XLS format, 150 kb
    3 and 4 standardsCoins with Three and Four standards
    Coins of Nicaea (NIKAEWN), Antioch and Juliopolis showing standards
    • Three and Four standards
    • Legionary eagles (standards surmounted by eagles) between or flanking normal standards
    • standards surmounted by capricorns between or flanking normal standards
    • Split into two sheets: rev. legend between standards and rev legend around the coin's rim
    • For legends between standards: five columns for the various possiblities for the letters' positions.
    XLS format, only 48 kb
    VRBS ROMAVRBS ROMA
    Wolf and Twins
    XLS format, 325 kb, includes bust types and notes.
    Victory advancing leftVictory advancing leftft
    (usually with wreath and palm branch, sometimes with 2 wreaths) Legends usually SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE or VICTORIA AVG(GG). (No captives on this type! See above)
    XLS file 250 kb includes Bust types and notes.
    Victoriae LaetaeVICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERPRP
    Two Victories facing, inscribing shield over altar).
    XLS file, 585 kB, includes Bust types and notes.
    Victory standing left, looks like a Barbaric!Victory standing leftft.
    (Mostly Majorian but some others too)
    XLS format, 25 kB
    victorinusVICTORINUS'S ANTONINIANI
    All the antoniniani of Victorinus includes hoard coins and numerous imitations, split into separate sheets for reverse types e.g. 1 Person, 2 Persons etc.
    XLS format, approx 96 kB includes Bust types and notes.
    Salvs ReipvblicaeSALVS REIPVBLICAEAE
    Victory advancing left dragging captive and carrying a trophy over right shoulder.
    XLS format, approx 74 kB includes Bust types and notes.
    2 VictoriesVICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN and VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAE(S)S)
    • Two Victories facing, holding wreaths.
    • Two Victories facing, holding a wreath usually inscribed VOT/V/MVLT/X
    • XLS file, 173 kB, includes Bust types and notes.
    Some VIRTVS EXERCITI and VIRTVS EXERCIT typesVIRTVS S EXERCITI, VIRTVTI EXERC... and variations.
    Coins in the list:
    • Victory crowning emperor
    • Emperor with foot on prisoner
    • Trophy and 2 captives below
    • Standard (VOT X and VOT XX types) and 2 captives below
    • Mars advancing right, holding spear, trophy and sometimes shield (VIRTVS.. and VIRTVTI legends)
    • Virtus advancing right, holding spear, trophy and sometimes shield (VIRTVS.. and VIRTVTI legends)
    • Includes bust types and notes
    VOT__VOT.. (V, X, XV, XX etc) c)
    Separate pages for each type plus additional pages for unusual reverses (e.g. VOT X FEL, VOTIS X PROBI AVG ET XX)
    XLS file, 460 kB, includes bust types and notes.
     

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    Roman Mints and Officina

    Starting around the middle of the 3rd century A.D., Roman mints began incorporating mint marks as a way to control actions of mint officials.  In addition to the mint, the officina (or workshop) within the mint is often identified.  If a problem was found on a particular series of coins (underweight for example), the coins could be traced to the offending mint and the officials held liable.

    Mint marks are located on the reverse of the coin at the bottom in an area known as the 'exergue'. The exergue is visually set off from the rest of the reverse design by a line.  In some cases, part of the mint mark (such as the officina or workshop) may be found in the body of the reverse design or even on the obverse field.

    A mint mark was (in most cases) formed from three or four elements:
    1.  A letter P (
    Pecunia, Latin for money), M (Moneta) or SM (Sacra Moneta).  Often these letters are omitted.  In some mintmarks the abbreviated mint name is followed by PS (Pecunia Sacra).  Mintmarks on gold coins often end with the letters OB (obryzium - refined or pure gold).
    2.  Mint city abbreviation (usually one to four letters, but up to seven).
    3.  Officina identification.  Latin letter, a Greek letter or letters or a Roman numeral indicating the officina. Some officina symbols are listed in a table below.  Sometimes the officina is omitted and sometimes it precedes the mint name abbreviation.
    4.  Series marks.  Many mintmarks also include symbols such as dots, a crescent, or a branch, for example.  These symbols probably indicate when the coin was struck and who was responsible for the workshop at that time.

    The tables below will help determine the mint and officina for Roman coins.

     

    Roman Mintmarks (Arranged in alphabetical order)

    Mintmark

    Mint (Modern Name)

    A

    Arelatum/Constantina (Arles, France)

    AL

    Alexandria, Egypt

    ALE

    Alexandria, Egypt

    ALEX

    Alexandria, Egypt

    AMB

    Ambianum (Amiens, France)

    AMBI

    Ambianum (Amiens, France)

    AN

    Antioch/Antiochia, Syria (Antakiyah, Turkey)

    ANT

    Antioch/Antiochia, Syria (Antakiyah, Turkey)

    ANTOB

    Antioch/Antiochia, Syria (Antakiyah, Turkey)

    AQ

    Aquileia, Italy

    AQOB

    Aquileia, Italy

    AQPS

    Aquileia, Italy

    AQVI

    Aquileia, Italy

    AQVIL

    Aquileia, Italy

    AR

    Arelatum/Constantina (Arles, France)

    ARL

    Arelatum/Constantina (Arles, France)

    AVG

    Londinium (London, England)

    AVGOB

    Londinium (London, England)

    AVGPS

    Londinium (London, England)

     

     

    BA

    Barcino (Barcelona, Spain)

     

     

    C

    Camulodunum (Colchester, England)

    C

    Clausentum (Bitterne, England)

    C

    Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

    CL

    Camulodunum (Colchester, England)

    CL

    Clausentum (Bitterne, England)

    CP

    Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

    COM

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    COMOB

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    CON

    Arelatum/Constantina (Arles, France)

    CONST

    Arelatum/Constantina (Arles, France)

    CON

    Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

    CONS

    Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

    CONSP

    Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

    CONOB

    Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

    CVZ

    Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

    CVZIC

    Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

    CYZ

    Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

    CYZICEN

    Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

     

     

    H

    Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

    HER

    Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

    HERAC

    Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

    HERACI

    Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

    HERACL

    Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

    HT

    Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

     

     

    K

    Carthage/Carthago (near Tunis, Tunisia)

    K

    Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

    KAR

    Carthage/Carthago (near Tunis, Tunisia)

    KART

    Carthage/Carthago (near Tunis, Tunisia)  

    KON

    Arelatum/Constantina (Arles, France)

    KONSTAN

    Arelatum/Constantina (Arles, France)

    KV

    Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

    KVZ

    Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

    KY

    Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

     

     

    L

    Londinium (London, England)

    LD

    Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

    LG

    Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

    LI

    Londinium (London, England)

    LN

    Londinium (London, England)

    LON

    Londinium (London, England)

    LVG

    Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

    LVGD

    Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

    LVGPS

    Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

     

     

    MD

    Mediolanum (Milan, Italy)

    MDOB

    Mediolanum (Milan, Italy)

    MDPS

    Mediolanum (Milan, Italy)

    MED

    Mediolanum (Milan, Italy)

    ML

    Londinium (London, England)

    MLL

    Londinium (London, England)

    MLN

    Londinium (London, England)

    MN

    Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

    MOST

    Ostia (Port of Rome, Italy)

    MSL

    Londinium (London, England)

     

     

    N

    Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

    NIC

    Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

    NICO

    Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

    NIK

    Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

     

     

    OES

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    OST

    Ostia (Port of Rome, Italy)

     

     

    PLG

    Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

    PLN

    Londinium (London, England)

    PLON

    Londinium (London, England)

    PK

    Carthage/Carthago (near Tunis, Tunisia)

     

     

    R

    Rome, Italy

    RAV

    Ravenna, Italy

    RM

    Rome, Italy

    ROM

    Rome, Italy

    ROMA

    Rome, Italy

    ROMOB

    Rome, Italy

    RV

    Ravenna, Italy

    RVPS

    Ravenna, Italy

     

     

    S

    Siscia (Sisak, Croatia)

    SD

    Serdica (Sophia, Bulgaria)

    SER

    Serdica (Sophia, Bulgaria)

    SERD

    Serdica (Sophia, Bulgaria)

    SIR

    Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)

    SIRM

    Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)

    SIROB

    Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)

    SIS

    Siscia (Sisak, Croatia)

    SISC

    Siscia (Sisak, Croatia)

    SISCPS

    Siscia (Sisak, Croatia)

    SM

    Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)

    SMAL

    Alexandria, Egypt

    SMAN

    Antioch/Antiochia, Syria (Antakiyah, Turkey)

    SMAQ

    Aquileia, Italy

    SMBA

    Barcino (Barcelona, Spain)

    SMH

    Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

    SMK

    Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

    SMN

    Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

    SMR

    Rome, Italy

    SMSD

    Serdica (Sophia, Bulgaria)

    SMTR

    Treveri (Trier, Germany)

    SMTS

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

     

     

    T

    Ticinum (Pavia, Italy)

    TE

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    TES

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    TESOB

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    TH

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    THS

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    THES

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    THSOB

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    TR

    Treveri (Trier, Germany)

    TRE

    Treveri (Trier, Germany)

    TROB

    Treveri (Trier, Germany)

    TRPS

    Treveri (Trier, Germany)

    TS

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

     

     

    VRB ROM

    Rome, Italy

     

    Roman Mintmarks (Arranged by Mint)

    Mint

    Dates of Operation

    Mintmarks

    Alexandria, Egypt

    294 - 421 and
    457 - 474 A.D.

    AL, ALE, ALEX, SMAL
    (Notes: Issued currency for the province before becoming a regular imperial mint.  Reopened by the Byzantines 525 -646 A.D.)
     

    Ambianum (Amiens, France)

    350 - 353 A.D.

    AMB, AMBI
     

    Antioch/Antiochia, Syria (Antakiyah, Turkey)

    217 - 611 A.D.

    AN, ANT, ANTOB, SMAN
    (Notes: Struck local issues prior to becoming an imperial mint.)
     

    Aquileia, Italy

    294 - 324 and
    334 - 430 A.D.
     

    AQ, AQOB, AQPS, AQVI, AQVIL, SMAQ
     

    Arelatum/Constantina (Arles, France)

    313 - 475 A.D.

    A, AR, ARL, CON, CONST, KON, KONSTAN
    (Notes: In 328 Arelatum was renamed Constantina in honor of Constantine II. After Constantine II was killed in 340, the name reverted to Arelate, only to be changed again in 354 to Constantina by Constantius II. It retained that name, although the mintmark 'AR' appeared on some of its coins even in the fifth century.)
     

    Barcino (Barcelona, Spain)

    409 - 411 A.D.

    BA, SMBA
    (Notes: Mint city for the usurper Maximus)
     

    Camulodunum (Colchester, England)

    c. 287 - 296 A.D.

    C, CL
    (Notes: Hosted a mint under the British Roman emperors Carausius and Allectus.)
     

    Clausentum (Bitterne, England)

    287 - 296 A.D.

    C, CL
    (Notes: Hosted a mint under the British Roman emperors Carausius and Allectus.)
     

    Carthage/Carthago (near Tunis, Tunisia)  

    296 - 307 and
    308 - 311 A.D.
     

    K, KAR, KART, PLK
     

    Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

    326 - 1453 A.D.

    C, CP, CON, CONS, CONSP, CONOB
     

    Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

    260 - c. 475 A.D.

    CVZ, CVZIC, CYZ, CYZICEN, KV, KVZ, KY, SMK
     

    Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

    291 - c. 474 A.D.

    H, HER, HERAC, HERACI, HERACL, HT, SMH
    (Notes: HT abbreviates Heraclea Thracica.)
     

    Londinium/Augusta (London, England)

    287 - 325 and
    383 - 388 A.D.

    AVG, AVGOB, AVGPS, L, LD, LG, LI, LN, LON, LVG, LVGD, LVGPS, ML, MLL, MLN, MSL, PLN, PLON
    (Notes: Londinium was renamed Augusta c. 325 A.D.  Coins minted under Magnus Maximus, 383 -387 A.D. use the AVG mintmarks.)
     

    Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

    15 B.C. - c. 90 A.D.,
    195 -196, and
    c. 254 - 423 A.D.

    PLG
    (Notes:  Struck under the usurper Clodius Albinus, 195 - 196 A.D.)
     

    Mediolanum (Milan, Italy)

    c. 250 - c. 275 and
    364 - 475 A.D.

    MD, MDOB, MDPS, MED
    (Notes:  Theoderic, the Gothic king of Italy minted coins at Mediolanum, 493 to 526 A.D.)
     

    Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

    294 - c. 474 A.D.

    MN, N, NIC, NICO, NIK, SMN
    (Notes:  reopened as a Byzantine mint, 498 - 627.)
     

    Ostia (Port of Rome, Italy)

    308-313 A.D.

    MOST, OST
    (Notes:  The mint was transferred to Ostia from Carthage and then transferred from Ostia to Arelate.)
     

    Ravenna, Italy

    404 - 475 A.D.

    RAV, RV, RVPS
     

    Rome, Italy

    c. 289 - 40 B.C. and
    20 B.C. - 476 A.D.
     

    R, RM, ROM, ROMA, ROMOB, VRB ROM, SMR
     

    Serdica (Sophia, Bulgaria)

    272 -282, 303-308
    and 313 -314 A.D.
     

    SD, SER, SERD, SMSD
     

    Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia, 75 km West of Belgrade on the river Sava)

    320 - 326, 351 - 364, 379 and 393 - 395 A.D.
     

    SIR, SIRM, SIROB, SM

    Siscia (Sisak, Croatia)

    260 - c. 390 A.D.

    S, SIS, SISC, SISCPS
     

    Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

    298 or 299 - c. 460 A.D.

    COM, COMOB, OES, SMTS, TE, TES, TESOB, TH, THES, THS, THSOB, TS
    (Notes:  Closed during the reign of Leo I, 457-474 A.D.)
     

    Ticinum (Pavia, Italy)

    c. 274 - 326 A.D.

    T
     

    Treveri (Trier, Germany)

    294 - 395, 408 - 413 and c. 430 A.D.

    SMTR, TR, TRE, TROB, TRPS
     

     

    Officina Numbers

    1st

    I, P (for prima), PRIMA, A (alpha), OFF P (officina prima)

    2nd

    II, S (for secunda), SECVNDA, B (beta), OFF S (officina secunda)

    3rd

    III, T (for tertia), TERTIA, C, G (gamma)

    4th

    IIII, Q (for quarta), QVARTA, D, D (delta)

    5th

    V, E (epsilon)

    6th

    VI, V (stigma - archaic Greek letter resembling S)

    7th

    VII, Z (zeta)

    8th

    H (eta)

    9th

    N, Q (theta), DE (delta epsilon)

    10th

    X, I (iota)

    11th

    XI, IA (iota alpha), AI (alpha iota)

    12th

    XII, IB (iota beta), BI (beta iota)

    13th

    IG (iota gamma), GI (gamma iota)

    14th

    ID (iota delta), DI (delta iota)

    15th

    IE (iota epsilon), EI (epsilon iota)

    Sources for Roman Mints and Officina:

    Roman Mintmarks and Mints (used by permission), by Norman R. Ray of Ancient Impressions (http://www.ancientimpressions.com/mints.htm

    Moneta, The Roman Imperial Software, by Numus

     

     

     

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    GREEK
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    BOOKS
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    OTHER TYPES OF COINS
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    ANTIQUITIES

    COLLECTIONS & HOARDS
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    Coins for Teachers
     

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